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OPEPD: Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development
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Policy and Program Studies Service—P-12

Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education

Accountability, Assessment, and Title I

Implementing Accountability and Supports under ESEA Flexibility (2016) presents the results of a study of the early implementation of the ESEA flexibility accountability and support provisions. The findings are based on telephone interviews conducted with a sample of 12 states, 22 districts, and 25 school-level officials in late 2013 and early 2014 and a review of relevant policy documents. All of the selected states were approved for ESEA flexibility during the first two submission windows (November 2011 and February 2012).

Early Implementation of State Differentiated Accountability Plans Under the No Child Left Behind Act (2012) describes how nine states implemented their differentiated accountability plans through January 2010, based on interviews and reviews of state documents. The differentiated accountability pilot was established by the Department to allow states to waive certain accountability requirements by varying the intensity and types of interventions provided in Title I schools identified for improvement. The Department approved differentiated accountability waivers for Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, and Ohio in July 2008 and for Arkansas, Louisiana, and New York in January 2009.

Final Report on the Evaluation of the Growth Model Pilot Project (2011) documents the Growth Model Pilot Project (GMPP). GMPP was initiated to allow states to experiment with adjustments to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) status accountability system, in order to improve the validity of AYP determinations by giving schools credit for students who are making significant growth. The pilot allowed states, districts, and schools to count students who were "on track" to being proficient but not yet there. Under NCLB, such students were not counted as proficient for the purpose of AYP determinations. The pilot was initiated in November 2005 with the goal of approving up to ten states to incorporate growth models in school AYP determinations. The project was written into regulation in late 2008; now any state may apply to use a growth model meeting certain core principles. Currently, 15 states are implementing growth models under this authority: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas.

State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, Volume IX-Accountability Under NCLB: Final Report (2010) provides information on state, district, and school implementation of No Child Left Behind Act provisions concerning accountability and school improvement. The report is based on data collected in 2004-05 and 2006-07, including interviews with state education officials in all states and surveys of nationally-representative samples of districts, principals, and teachers.

An Exploratory Analysis of Adequate Yearly Progress, Identification for Improvement, and Student Achievement in Two States and Three Cities (2009). This report presents the results of exploratory quasi-experimental analyses that use a regression discontinuity (RD) design to examine the relationships between certain features of NCLB accountability and subsequent student achievement in Title I schools in two states and three school districts. Specifically, the report examines the effects of not making AYP or of being identified for the first year of school improvement status (after missing AYP for two consecutive years).

Evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (2009) addresses issues identified by Congress concerning the quality of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), including whether NAEP is properly administered, produces high quality data that are valid and reliable, and is consistent with relevant widely accepted professional assessment standards; and whether student achievement levels are reasonable, valid, and reliable.

Title I Accountability and School Improvement Efforts From 2001 to 2004 (2006) examines the implementation of accountability and school improvement under Title I of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) from 2001-02, the year before NCLB went into effect, through 2003-04, the second year of implementation of NCLB. The report includes a special focus on 2003-04, with findings on identification of schools for improvement, interventions implemented at schools identified for improvement, and public school choice and supplemental educational services under Title I.

Analysis of State K-3 Reading Standards and Assessments (2005) examines the extent to which the five essential components of effective reading instruction (identified by the National Reading Panel in 2000) have been incorporated into state standards and assessments.

A Snapshot of Title I Schools, 2000-01 (2003) examines the implementation of the Title I program in 1998-99 through 2000-01 based on surveys of principals and teachers in a nationally representative sample of Title I schools.

Provision of Title I Services (2002) examines the extent to which changes in Title I legislation have helped promote school improvement activities, as well as the provision of instructional services including extended time, use of pullout and in-class instruction, use of teacher aides; and coordination of services for special population students.

Schools Identified as in Need of Improvement Under Title I (2002) examines levels of understanding of school improvement status by school principals; technical assistance received by these schools; whether schools have been subjected to corrective actions; schools' progress in meeting adequate yearly progress targets and moving out of school improvement status.

Longitudinal Evaluation of School Change and Performance: Final Report (2001) examines changes in student performance in a sample of 71 Title I schools, based on a longitudinal sample of students as they progressed from 3rd to 5th grade between 1997 and 1999. The study analyzes student outcomes associated with specific aspects of curriculum and instruction and identified policy conditions-especially regarding standards-based reform-under which effective classroom practices were likely to flourish.



Title I National Assessments

Title I Implementation: Update on Recent Evaluation Findings (2009) provides a summary of findings from Title I evaluation studies that have become available after the publication of the National Assessment of Title I final report in 2007. The report presents data collected in 2006-07 through the National Longitudinal Study of NCLB and the Study of State Implementation of Accountability and Teacher Quality Under NCLB. The report includes findings from interviews with state education officials in all states, surveys of nationally representative samples of districts, principals, and teachers, data from consolidated state performance reports, and analyses of student achievement trends on state assessments and NAEP.

National Assessment of Title I: Final Report to Congress (2007) presents findings from the congressionally mandated National Assessment of Title I on the implementation and impact of the program. Volume I contains key findings on the implementation of the program under the No Child Left Behind Act, and Volume II presents a report on follow-up findings from Closing the Reading Gap, an evaluation of the impact of supplemental remedial reading programs on achievement of 3rd and 5th grade students.

National Assessment of Title I: Interim Report to Congress (2006) provides preliminary findings from the congressionally mandated National Assessment of Title I. Volume I contains findings on the implementation of the Title I program under the No Child Left Behind Act, and Volume II presents early findings from Closing the Reading Gap, an evaluation of the impact of supplemental remedial reading programs on achievement of 3rd and 5th grade students.

High Standards for All Students: A Report from the National Assessment of Title I on Progress and Challenges Since the 1994 Reauthorization (2001) provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent data available from the National Assessment of Title I on the implementation of the Title I program and the academic performance of children in high-poverty schools.

Promising Results, Continuing Challenges: National Assessment of Title I (1999) summarizes findings from a variety of studies conducted for the National Assessment of Title I, examining the implementation and impact of the program. The report examines progress in the performance of students in high-poverty schools, the development of state standards and assessment systems, accountability systems and school improvement efforts, the targeting of Title I funds, Title I services at the school level, support for family involvement, services for students in private schools, and services provided under the Even Start, Migrant Education, and Neglected and Delinquent programs.


Teachers and Leaders

New State Efforts to Promote Equitable Access to Effective Teachers (2017). This report provides a broad overview of state efforts, as of the 2011-12 school year, to monitor equitable access to qualified and effective teachers among schools; develop and adopt multiple measures of teacher performance to rate teachers among at least three performance levels; and implement targeted strategies for promoting equitable access to qualified and effective teachers.

Prevalence of Teachers Without Full State Certification and Variation Across Schools and States (2016). This report examines the extent to which teachers who are not fully certified are disproportionately assigned to teach in high-poverty schools, schools with high proportions of students of color, English learners, or students with disabilities, and schools located in rural or urban areas.

Teacher Incentive Fund: Final Report on the Implementation of Performance Pay Systems by the First and Second Cohorts of Grantees (2016). This report examines program implementation in the first two cohorts of Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grantees (i.e., recipients of five-year grants awarded in 2006 and 2007). It follows on a 2012 interim report on the same cohorts. The report highlights principal and teacher award sizes and distribution and composition of awards, as well as perspectives of educators participating in the TIF program. Because the TIF program has continued to evolve since those early cohorts, the grantees studied in this report were responding to somewhat different (and generally more flexible) program requirements than later cohorts of grantees, such as those described in a separate study by the Institute for Education Sciences. The report findings are applicable only to the first and second cohorts of grantees.

The State of Racial Diversity In the Educator Workforce (2016) examines the teacher pipeline from enrollment in postsecondary education to entrance into the teaching workforce and beyond. The report highlights a lack of racial diversity among teachers at public elementary and secondary schools across the nation. The findings reveal decreasing diversity at multiple points across the teacher pipeline through which teachers progress through postsecondary education, teacher preparation programs, hiring, and retention.

The Study of Emerging Teacher Evaluation Systems (2016) provides descriptive information on the design and early implementation of teacher evaluation systems in eight local school districts. This exploratory study is intended to help other districts and states learn from the experiences of these eight districts to inform future research on the effects of teacher evaluation systems on teacher professional practice and student performance. The study sample included four districts that were "fully implementing" their teacher evaluation systems at the time data were collected in 2012 and early 2013, and four districts that were considered to be "partially implementing" their systems.

Highly Qualified Teachers Enrolled in Programs Providing Alternative Routes to Teacher Certification or Licensure (2015) summarizes state- and district-level data on the numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) highly qualified teachers who were enrolled in alternative route programs for three groups of teachers—(1) all teachers, (2) special education teachers, and (3) teachers in language instruction educational programs for English learners (ELs) under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA)—as well as for teachers in high-poverty and rural school districts.

Providing Effective Teachers for All Students: Examples from Five Districts (2012). This report is based on case studies of five school districts that use data on student achievement growth to identify effective teachers, implement performance pay initiatives or other human resource policies, and seek to ensure an equitable distribution of effective teachers, particularly in high-need schools. Study methods included on-site interviews with district-level staff, teachers' association or union representatives, and principals, as well as analysis of district documents and materials.

Teacher Incentive Fund: First Implementation Report: 2006 and 2007 Grantees (2012). This study describes several aspects of the implementation of the first two cohorts of Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grantees. It highlights the main characteristics or components of TIF performance pay plans in terms of strategies, targets and size of award. It also discusses system supports (planning, communication, program and funding stability, data systems, and relationship to other human resource policies) and broader contextual factors (e.g., stakeholder satisfaction) that impede or enhance implementation of performance pay systems.

Teachers' Ability to Use Data to Inform Instruction: Challenges and Supports (2011). This report describes an exploratory study on teachers' thinking about data and the implications of the study's findings for teacher preparation and support. Understanding the nature of teachers' proficiencies and difficulties in data use is important for providing appropriate training and support to teachers because they are expected to use student data as a basis for improving the effectiveness of their practice.

The Teaching American History Evaluation: Final Report (2011) provides findings on a study of the Teaching American History (TAH) program, which provides funds to local school districts for developing and operating three-year professional development projects to improve instruction in this subject. The study found that state history assessment data were too limited to be used to conduct analyses of TAH effects. In addition, the study's analyses of TAH grantee evaluations found that the evaluations were not sufficiently rigorous to determine the impact of the TAH program on student achievement or teacher knowledge.

Recent Trends in Mean Scores and Characteristics of Test-Takers on Praxis II Licensure Tests (2010). This study examines changes in teacher licensure scores from 1999 to 2006. The study focuses specifically on nine tests in the Praxis II series because these tests are among the most widely used assessments across multiple states for purposes of measuring content knowledge for initial teacher licensure. The purpose of this study is to identify trends in Praxis scores on a select number of tests across recent years and across as many states as possible. The study focuses on trends in mean scores for those who pass the Praxis II tests, as these are individuals who are eligible to enter teaching. Analyses are disaggregated by passing status, gender, race, and whether or not the test candidate has prior teaching experience.

Towards the Identification of Features of Effective Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators—Literature Review (2010) analyzes the research on professional development of early childhood educators to characterize features of effective professional development. This review examines findings from research on four targets of early childhood professional development: 1) strengthening human and/or social capital; 2) strengthening practices at institutions or organizations providing professional development; 3) strengthening early educator practices related to specific child outcomes; and, 4) strengthening overall quality in classroom or group settings.

Use of Education Data at the Local Level: From Accountability to Instructional Improvement (2010). The national Study of Education Data Systems and Decision Making examined both the implementation of student data systems and the broader set of practices involving the use of data to improve instruction, regardless of whether or not the data were accessed through an electronic system. Earlier study reports have documented a dramatic increase in the proportion of teachers with access to a student data system between 2005 and 2007 and described school practices with respect to data use and the challenges that are part of student data system implementation. This final report builds on the picture of local practices in implementing data-driven decision making provided in the earlier reports by presenting data from the national district survey as well as from site visits conducted during 2007-08 to 36 schools in 12 districts.

Implementing Data-Informed Decision Making in Schools: Teacher Access, Supports and Use (2009) describes the student data systems available to school staff members, how school staff members are using the systems and other forms of student data, teachers' understanding of data displays and data interpretation issues, and the supports and challenges for school-level use of student data in planning and implementing instruction. This report draws on case study findings in nine purposively sampled districts, nominated on the basis of the strength of their data use activities. Researchers interviewed district staff members as well as principals and teachers from three schools within each district. In addition, a set of scenarios involving hypothetical student data were presented to teachers at each school to probe their understanding of student data. In addition to case study data, this report also draws on data from secondary sources (spring 2007 district and teacher surveys from the U.S. Department of Education's National Educational Technology Trends Study).

State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, Volume VIII—Teacher Quality Under NCLB: Final Report (2009) provides information on state, district, and school implementation of No Child Left Behind Act provisions concerning teacher quality, professional development, and paraprofessional. The report is based on data collected in 2004-05 and 2006-07, including interviews with state education officials in all states and surveys of nationally-representative samples of districts, principals, and teachers.

Teachers' Use of Student Data Systems to Improve Instruction: 2005 to 2007 (2008). This issue brief is the second in a two-part series examining teachers' access to and use of data from student data systems. This brief was developed through a secondary analysis of data from teachers and district technology coordinators surveyed at two points in time from 2005 to 2007 as part of the National Educational Technology Trends Study.

Teachers' Use of Student Data Systems to Improve Instruction (2007) provides the first national estimates of the prevalence of K-12 teachers' access to and use of student data systems. This paper was developed through a secondary analysis of national survey data from over 6000 teachers and over 1000 district technology coordinators conducted in 2005 as part of the National Educational Technology Trends Study.

Transition to Teaching Program Evaluation: An Interim Report on the FY 2002 Grantees (2007) presents the results of the interim evaluation of the program with data from the FY 2002 grantees in the third year of five-year grants. Data were collected from November 2004-February 2006 through an online Annual Performance Report in which grantees provided project-level characteristics and outcomes, eight case studies of grantees, a participant survey of teachers of record, and interim evaluations submitted by grantees.

The Evaluation of the Teaching American History (TAH) Program (2005) examines the implementation of this professional development program and the characteristics of the activities, content, and teacher participants for projects awarded during the first two years of the program. Findings are based on: surveys of program participants and project directors; case studies of projects; analyses of program documents; and lesson plans produced by program participants.

Improving Teacher Quality in U.S. School Districts (2004) provides descriptive data from a nationally representative sample of school districts showing how they used their Title II, Part A funds during the 2002-2003 school year. The brief provides data on how districts distributed their funds among the variety of allowable Title II activities, and it disaggregates the data by district size and poverty level.

Teacher Professional Development in Title I Schools (2002) provides information on professional development in Title I schools in 1998-99 and 1999-2000.


Early Learning

Case Studies of Schools Implementing Early Elementary Strategies: Preschool Through Third Grade Alignment and Differentiated Instruction (2016) presents findings from a descriptive study that examined the implementation of these two strategies in five programs. PPSS previously released a literature review that covered preschool through third grade alignment and differentiated instruction. Case study data—collected between November 2015 and January 2016—included interviews with 93 program staff, observations of program activities selected by principals, and review of program documents at nine schools.

Case Studies of the Early Implementation of Kindergarten Entry Assessments (2016) presents findings from a descriptive study that examined the development and early implementation of Kindergarten Entry Assessments (KEAs) in 12 districts across four Race To the Top-Early Learning Challenge grantee states (Maryland, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Washington) in the 2014-15 school year. The study consisted of document reviews, telephone interviews with state agency respondents and local preschool directors, and in-person interviews with district administrators, principals, kindergarten teachers, and other KEA assessors.

Preschool Through Third Grade Alignment and Differentiated Instruction: A Literature Review (2016) presents the results of a literature review on two strategies (preschool through third grade [P-3] alignment and differentiated instruction) that have the potential to help children maintain the benefits of preschool attendance. The literature review discusses approaches to P-3 alignment, the quality of studies on P-3 alignment, findings on the effectiveness of differentiated instruction, and the quality of studies on differentiated instruction. The findings are based on articles published between January 2003 and July 2014.

The Integration of Early Childhood Data: State Profiles and a Report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Education (2016) covers key considerations when states integrate data and highlights progress in eight states that are actively developing and using early childhood integrated data systems (ECIDS). The report discusses technical assistance and other resources available to states as they develop their ECIDS.

State Administration of the Even Start Family Literacy Program (2003) is based on a survey of state Even Start coordinators during the 2001-02 school year, as well as case studies in 12 states. The report describes Even Start administration at the state level and factors that facilitate or impede program improvement activities conducted by state coordinators. The report is intended to help federal staff better target their guidance and technical assistance to states and provide state coordinators with descriptions of program administration practices in other states as a self-assessment guide.

Third National Even Start Evaluation: Program Impacts and Implications for Improvement (2003). This report presents descriptive information on Even Start Family literacy programs and participants based on Even Start Performance Information Reporting System (ESPIRS) data from 1997-98 through 2000-01 for the universe of Even Start projects. In addition, the report presents findings from the Even Start Experimental Design Study (EDS), which randomly assigned families to either participate in Even Start or be in a control group, and discusses program impacts based on pretest and posttest data collected from the 18 EDS projects.


K-12 Instructional and Improvement Strategies

Reading and Literacy

The Reading First Implementation Study 2008-09 Final Report (2011) examined states' planned responses to the Reading First (RF) budget reduction which took place in FY 08. (Funding for the program was reduced from approximately $1 billion to $400 million and has since been eliminated.) The study found that RF funds were used to support strategies to improve instruction in both RF-funded districts and schools as well as in non-funded districts and schools. State respondents discussed a variety of specific strategies to support continuation of RF teaching practices such as use of reading coaches, use of RF materials and curricula, use of data driven instruction, use of reading assessments, and scientifically based reading instruction.

The Second Evaluation of the Improving Literacy Through School Libraries Program (2009) provides findings on how grant funds are targeted to schools, uses of the grant funds, staff collaboration and professional development, and the relationship between participation in the program and reading achievement scores. The report analyzes data from a survey of school libraries, district performance reports, case studies and test scores.

Reading First Implementation Evaluation Final Report (2008) compares reading practices in a national representative sample of Reading First and non-Reading First Title I schools, and analyzes reading achievement trends in both groups. Results are based on surveys completed in spring 2005 and 2007 by K-3 teachers, principals, and reading coaches, as well as from state and national databases of school-level reading scores on state assessments.

The Improving Literacy through School Libraries Evaluation Final Report (2005) provides findings on how grant funds are allocated to districts and targeted to schools, how these funds are being used, and how program participation relates to staff collaboration and professional development.


Comprehensive School Reform

Achieving Dramatic School Improvement: An Exploratory Study (2010) presents findings describing 11 initially low-performing elementary and middle schools receiving support under the federal Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program that were able to make dramatic improvements in academic performance. Intensive case studies were conducted on these schools, some of which made noteworthy student achievement gains in a relatively short (one- to two-year) time frame, while others improved at a slower, steadier pace over a longer period. This exploratory study examined the extent to which the reform processes of the schools reflected characteristics and strategies found in the research, whether schools improving at different rates differed in systematic ways, and the most significant challenges faced in both securing and sustaining dramatic school improvements.

The Evaluation of the Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes: Fifth-Year Report (2010) presents overall findings from the evaluation of the comprehensive school reform (CSR) program, including an examination of whether CSR funding had a positive influence on academic achievement. The CSR program was first established as a demonstration program in 1998. It was subsequently authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB).

The Evaluation of the Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes: Third Year Report (2008) provides third-year study findings regarding schools receiving comprehensive school reform (CSR) assistance awards in 2002, focusing on how CSR award receipt was related to subsequent changes in achievement and whether aspects of program implementation were associated with achievement gains. Findings are based on analyses of survey, case study, and assessment data collected from grantees and comparison schools from fall 2002 through spring 2005.

Implementation and Early Outcomes of the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) Program (2004) summarizes data relating to CSRD schools from a variety of sources including surveys and case studies, state assessment data, and a database of grantee information. The report examines the targeting of CSRD funds, how well CSRD schools are implementing the nine components of comprehensive school reform described in the 1998 law, and achievement trends in CSRD schools compared with non-CSRD schools.

The Longitudinal Analysis of Comprehensive School Reform Implementation and Outcomes Evaluation (LACIO) (2004) is a five-year evaluation of the Comprehensive School Reform program (CSR). LACIO examines how schools that first received CSR funds in 2002-03 implemented CSR and the relationships between CSR implementation and student achievement outcomes. This first year report focuses on how states target CSR program funds and what reform activities schools undertake in the first year of implementation.

Field-Focused Study of the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration Program (2003) presents findings from the Field-Focused Study (FFS), one of several components in the National Evaluation of the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) Program. FFS provides information on the initial implementation of the CSRD program, including progress in implementing the components of CSRD, the role of district and state influences on implementing the program, and early signs regarding the potential sustainability of the program at the school level. Volume I contains the main text. Volume II contains six appendices to Volume I, including short summaries of the 18 schools that were studied.


Class-Size Reduction

A Descriptive Evaluation of the Federal Class-Size Reduction Program (2004) presents findings from the 2000-01 school year on the distribution and use of federal Class-Size Reduction (CSR) funds, the implementation of CSR, and the effects of CSR on class size. The report is based on surveys of district staff and school principals and site visits to six states, 12 districts, 24 schools, and 48 CSR classrooms.


Extended Learning Time

21st Century Community Learning Centers Descriptive Study of Program Practices (2010) focuses on the implementation of reading and mathematics activities, student attendance, and hiring and retaining qualified staff in 21st Century Community Learning Centers. Results are based on data from surveys and case studies from the 2005-06 school year.


Education Technology

The U.S.-China E-Language Project: A Study of a Gaming Approach to English Language Learning for Middle School Students (2011). In 2001, the U.S. Department of Education and the Ministry of Education in China entered into a bilateral partnership to develop a technology-driven approach to foreign language learning that integrates gaming, immersion, voice recognition, problem-based learning tasks, and other features that made it a significant research and development pilot project for study. The purpose of this report is to describe the evaluation of a key outcome of this bilateral partnership, The Forgotten World. This program was implemented as a supplementary activity in middle school classrooms in western China to teach the English language and American culture to eighth-grade students. The evaluation was conducted in five treatment schools and five comparison schools during the 2009-10 school year and included approximately 3,500 students.

Evaluation of the Enhancing Education Through Technology Program: Final Report (2009). This study collected information about educational technology practices related to the Enhancing Education Through Technology (EETT) program. The report is structured around the EETT program objectives and specific performance measures developed by the Department to meet the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. The program objectives and performance measures focus on teachers' and students' access to technology, technology-related professional development, technology integration, and student technology literacy. The study collected data from nationally representative samples of states, districts and teachers between school years 2002-03 and 2006-07.

Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies (2009). A systematic search of the research literature from 1996 through July 2008 identified more than a thousand empirical studies of online learning. Analysts screened these studies to find those that (a) contrasted an online to a face-to-face condition, (b) measured student learning outcomes, (c) used a rigorous research design, and (d) provided adequate information to calculate an effect size. As a result of this screening, 51 independent effects were identified that could be subjected to meta-analysis.

National Educational Technology Trends Study: Local-level Data Summary (2008). This summary presents findings from a multiyear evaluation that examines the implementation of the Enhancing Education Through Technology (EETT) program from fiscal year FY 2002 to FY 2007. Based on data collected from states, districts, and teachers in 2004 and 2005, the report provides descriptive analyses of district and school implementation of the EETT program, focusing on issues that are central to the program: distribution of funds; EETT district investment in educational technology; teacher and student access to technology; technology-related teacher professional development; and technology integration in teaching and learning.

National Educational Technology Trends Study State Strategies Report: Vol. 1 (2007). This report examines state priorities and programs supported under the federal Enhancing Education Through Technology program (EETT) and the relationship between state educational technology program activities and the overarching goals and purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The report describes state educational technology policies and related programs, including the role of the EETT program in state efforts.

National Educational Technology Trends Study State Strategies Report: Vol. 2 (2007). Using data collected for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress, this report examines educational technology access and use in fourth- and eighth-grade mathematics classrooms all across the country. The report provides both national and state-by-state data and examines teacher and student access to instructional technology, teachers' efforts to integrate technology in mathematics instruction and assessment, student use of technology in mathematics learning, and the technology-related development and support that states provide to teachers.

Federal Funding for Educational Technology and How It Is Used in the Classroom: A Summary of Findings from the Integrated Studies of Educational Technology (2003) summarizes the three final reports produced by the Integrated Studies of Educational Technology (ISET), a nested set of state, district, school, and teacher surveys that provided nationally representative information on federal funding for, and uses of, educational technology.


Preparing Students for College and Careers

PPSS Briefs Highlighting Results from the National Survey on High School Strategies (HSS) Designed to Help At-Risk Students Graduate (2017) provide descriptive information on the prevalence and characteristics of strategies designed to help at-risk students graduate from high school. This study collected data in the 2014-15 school year from a nationally representative sample of 2,142 public high schools about 13 specific high school improvement strategies designed to improve the likelihood of high school graduation for at-risk students. This link houses the collection of briefs and supporting materials.

Accessing the HSS Restricted-Use Data File to Conduct Your Own Analyses (2017). If you are interested in analyzing the HSS data, please submit a request as follows. New users without an approved license issued through the Institute for Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, Statistical Standards Program, will need to initiate the license request process at the following link: https://nces.ed.gov/statprog/instruct.asp. The website provides instructions on how to apply. Existing licensees may request the data file by adding it to their license by selecting “Add-Data Amendment” at the following link: https://nces.ed.gov/statprog/instruct_mod.asp.

Using Evidence to Create Next Generation High Schools (2016) highlights six evidence-based strategies to improve America's high schools for the next generation. The six evidence-based strategies in this document can be used to create Next Generation High Schools that improve important student outcomes, such as high school completion and readiness for college and careers. These have a track record of success and can be used together to provide a full, engaging high school experience for students. Though many of the effective strategies may share common features, each has been identified by the research literature as a stand-alone intervention for improving students' educational outcomes. Reviewed strategies for enhancing students' high school and college outcomes include: 1) participation in rigorous curriculum; 2) small learning communities/small schools of choice; 3) career academies; 4) dual enrollment; 5) early college high schools; and 6) college and career counseling.

National Assessment of Career and Technical Education: Final Report (2014) summarizes data on the implementation of the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (Perkins IV), as well as student participation and outcomes for CTE more generally. The report uses information from studies commissioned for the NACTE, reviews of existing research, and analyses of extant data. Topics include student participation in CTE programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels, changes in Perkins funding levels and targeting, implementation of Perkins IV provisions regarding programs of study (POS) and accountability, and educational and employment outcomes for CTE students.

Putting "career" in "college and career ready": The report of the Independent Advisory Panel of the National Assessment of Career and Technical Education (2014) provides the conclusions and recommendations of the independent panel that was congressionally mandated to provide advice on the design and implementation of the NACTE.

Supplemental Reports of the National Assessment of Career and Technical Education (2013) are studies commissioned from independent researchers and evaluators that examine different aspects of career and technical education in the United States, such as student outcomes and the implementation of career and technical education programs. The supplemental reports are source materials for the National Assessment of Career and Technical Education. Links to these reports are available on the NACTE reports page.

Implementation Study of Smaller Learning Communities: Final Report (2008). This report describes the strategies and practices used in implementing SLCs based on surveys and case studies of the first cohort of grantee schools funded under this program, as well as analysis of annual performance reports submitted by SLC grantees. The study examines the principal strategies, models, and practices that these schools implemented, the factors facilitating and inhibiting implementation in SLC schools, and how outcomes for SLC schools, as measured by student achievement and school behavior, change over time.

National Assessment of Vocational Education: Final Report to Congress (2004) presents a synthesis of evidence on the implementation and outcomes of vocational education and of the 1998 Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act (Perkins III). It examines questions about the effectiveness of vocational education in improving student outcomes, the consequences of new funding and accountability provisions for programs and participants, the implementation and quality of vocational education, and the extent of its alignment with other reform efforts. The report also discusses options for the future direction of vocational education legislation.


School Choice

Charter Schools and Magnet Schools

Implementation of the Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Program: Final Report (2008). The Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Program was established in 2001 to address a critical problem faced by many charter schools—lack of suitable facilities and difficulty obtaining financing to secure suitable facilities. The program makes competitive grants to eligible public entities that provide credit enhancements to absorb some of the risk in making facilities loans to charter schools. This study examines, broadly, how the program was implemented by the nine organizations that received grants in FY 2002-FY 2004, and specifically, whether the program is providing: (1) improved access of charter schools to capital markets, (2) better financing rates and terms than the schools otherwise could obtain, and (3) assistance to charter schools that are serving students with the greatest need for school choice. The study draws on information from grantee applications and annual performance reports; several secondary data sources; and discussions with samples of grantees, lenders, and schools assisted by grantees.

Evaluation of Public Charter Schools Program: Final Evaluation Report (2004). The final report examines the operations of the Public Charter Schools Program (PCSP) in supporting continued growth and development of the charter school sector in American public education. In addition, it provides information on the characteristics of the sector as of 2001-02, with particular attention to the nature of charter school accountability.

Evaluation of the Magnet School Assistance Program (MSAP): 1998 Grantees (2003). The final report for this study examines the progress of MSAP projects in achieving four legislative purposes of the program. Particular attention is given to program outcomes in reducing minority student isolation and improving student achievement.


Voluntary Public School Choice

The Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program: Final Report (2008) uses a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods to measure the progress VPSC sites have made in meeting the program's legislative goals to: 1) maximize choice, 2) encourage students to transfer to higher achieving schools, and 3) promote interdistrict transfers. The evaluation draws from multiple data sources, including: site visits, surveys, program documents, and student achievement records. Data collection started in the fall of 2002 and continued through the end of the five-year grant cycle in the spring of 2007.

Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program: Interim Report (2007) uses a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods to measure the progress VPSC sites have made in meeting the program's legislative goals to: 1) maximize choice, 2) encourage students to transfer to higher achieving schools, and 3) promote interdistrict transfers. The interim report discusses the evaluation findings during the first three years of implementation of the VPSC Program.


Title I School Choice and Supplemental Educational Services

Supplemental Educational Services and Student Achievement in Five Waiver Districts (2011) presents final implementation and outcome findings from the five districts that received waivers to serve as Supplemental Educational Service (SES) providers, despite being identified for improvement, corrective action or restructuring. Federal regulations prohibit school districts identified for improvement or corrective action from serving as SES providers. The SES waiver pilot program allowed five identified districts to serve as SES providers beginning in 2005-06 (Boston and Chicago), 2006-07 (Hillsborough County, Florida and Anchorage, Alaska), and 2008-09 (Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina). In 2009-10, the pilot was replaced with a more expansive waiver opportunity that allows states to request a waiver from the U.S. Department of Education to approve identified districts or schools as SES providers.

State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, Volume VII—Title I School Choice and Supplemental Educational Services: Final Report (2009) provides updated information on the implementation and usage of choice options that are offered to students in Title I schools that have been identified for improvement. Findings are based on interviews with state education officials in all states and surveys of nationally-representative samples of districts, principals, and teachers conducted in 2004-05 and 2006-07, as well as surveys of parents in eight large urban school districts in those same years.

State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, Volume I—Title I School Choice, Supplemental Educational Services, and Student Achievement (2007) examines the impact of participation in Title I school choice and supplemental educational services (SES) on student achievement, as well as the characteristics of participating students. The quasi-experimental analysis used student-level participation and state assessment data from nine large urban districts for 2000-01 through 2004-05.

Case Studies of Supplemental Services Under the No Child Left Behind Act: Findings from 2003-04 (2005) examines implementation of supplemental educational services provisions of Title I of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) during the 2003-04 school year, the second year the requirements were in effect, through case studies of nine districts in six states. Building on findings reported in the "Year One" report for the case studies, this report details how supplemental services were implemented at all levels, considers continuing challenges to implementation, and provides additional examples of promising approaches.


Single-Sex Schools

Early Implementation of Public Single-Sex Schools: Perceptions and Characteristics (2008) has two components. The first component is a review of literature on single sex schooling that was published in the fall of 2005. The second component is based on surveys and site visits conducted in 2005, which provide additional descriptive data on public single sex schools in the U.S. This report summarizes studies and programs implemented before ED issued its recent regulations on single sex schools and classes. Therefore, educators should not rely on the study's findings about perceived effects of single-sex schools or classes in establishing single-sex programs consistent with the ED's regulations. This report may be helpful in considering topics on which further research and evaluation may be warranted.

Single-Sex Versus Coeducation Schooling: A Systematic Review (2005) examines the existing literature on single-sex schooling at the elementary and secondary level, using an unbiased, transparent, and objective selection process adopted from the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC). The review was conducted as part of the ongoing study of single-sex public schools.


Private Schools and Organizations

An Evaluation of the Participation of Faith-Based and Community Organizations in U.S. Department of Education Discretionary Grant Programs and as Supplemental Educational Services Providers (2007) discusses the success of Faith-Based and Community Organizations (FBCOs) in winning discretionary grants in two specific programs, whether the pool of higher-quality applicants has increased with the participation of FBCOs, and how many Faith-Based Organizations are approved as supplemental educational services providers.

Private School Participants in Programs under the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Private School and Public School District Perspectives (2007) describes participation of private school participants in federal education programs, the consultation process between private schools and public school districts, and public school district allocation of federal funds for services for private school participants. The results presented in this report are based on surveys conducted in 2005-06 among a nationally representative sample of public school districts with at least one private school located within their boundaries and a nationally representative sample of private schools located within the boundaries of the sample districts.


Safe and Healthy Schools

Evaluation of the Carol M. White Physical Education Program: Final Report (2015) provides information on the implementation of Fiscal Year 2010 PEP grants. The report focuses on PEP grantees' experiences with self-assessments, policy efforts, programmatic activities, community partnership, and Body Mass Index data. The report uses information from two surveys (conducted in years one and three of the grant progra MB) and five case studies (conducted in year three).

Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies (2011) reviews states' bullying laws and model bullying policies and school districts' bullying policies. The report uses the U.S. Department of Education's guidance document, "Anti-Bullying Policies: Examples of Provisions in State Laws," as an organizing framework for the review.

Prevalence and Implementation Fidelity of Research-Based Prevention Programs in Public Schools (2011). This report presents findings on key program implementation measures for the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA): State Grants Program. Funding for the State Grants Program was eliminated in Fiscal Year 2010. Prior to this, grants were awarded to States to support a variety of drug and violence prevention activities for school-age youths. The study examines: (1) the prevalence of research-based drug and violence prevention programs in schools and (2) the extent to which research-based drug and violence prevention programs adhere to the program features on which they are based (or the program's implementation fidelity). Findings are based on a review of the research literature and national probability sample surveys of districts, schools and research-based prevention programs.

Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of Existing Literature (2004) is a report requested by Congress. It examines the incidence and prevalence of abuse, patterns of misconduct, and prevention strategies, among other items.

Wide Scope, Questionable Quality: Three Reports from the Study on School Violence and Prevention (2000) investigates the extent of problem behavior in schools nationally and several aspects of delinquency prevention efforts in schools, such as the types and quality of prevention efforts, how schools plan and use information about prevention options to improve their own efforts and school management, and sources of funding for school prevention activities.

  • Executive Summary: PDF (219 KB)| Word (200 KB)
  • Wide Scope, Questionable Quality: Drug and Violence Prevention Efforts in American Schoolspresents findings from surveys of a national sample of elementary, middle, and high schools, including surveys of school principals and prevention activity providers, and, in the middle and high schools, of teachers and students, along with surveys of district Safe and Drug-Free Schools program coordinators. PDF (911 KB) | Word (910 KB)
  • A Closer Look at Drug and Violence Prevention Efforts in American Schoolspresents case studies of 40 schools (20 middle schools and 20 high schools) included in the national survey. PDF (837 KB) | Word (436 KB)
  • School Crime Patterns: A National Profile of U.S. Public Schools Using Rates of Crime Reported to Policeexamines data from a previous NCES survey asking principals about the number and types of crimes they report to police. New analysis focuses on high schools, profiling schools with high and low levels of reported crime. PDF (617 KB) | Word (311 KB)

School Finance

New Exploring the Quality of School-Level Expenditure Data: Practices and Lessons Learned in Nine Sites (2017). School-level expenditure data are useful for examining the extent to which resources are distributed equitably across schools within school districts and may also help practitioners and researchers better understand associations between spending patterns and student outcomes and identify cost-effective practices. However, the quality and utility of current school-level expenditure data are uncertain, and many school districts do not have experience in systematically tracking expenditures at the school level. This study—through surveys and interviews of state and school district officials, as well as collection and analysis of school-level spending data—explores the feasibility of improving the collection of school-level expenditure data by examining the nature and quality of school-level fiscal data collection in five states and four school districts that had developed their own systems for collecting and reporting school-level expenditures: Florida, Hawaii, Ohio, Rhode Island, Texas, Baltimore City, Hillsborough County, Houston, and Los Angeles. The study examined three aspects of data quality: the comprehensiveness of school-level spending data, consistency with other data sources, and the relative accuracy of allocating expenditures to schools by formula (rather than tracking actual expenditures for each school).

State and Local Expenditures on Corrections and Education (2016). This policy brief examines state-by-state trends to compare the extent to which state and local governments are investing in education and in corrections. More specifically, this brief uses extant data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Census Bureau, and other sources to present a snapshot of the changes in state and local expenditures for corrections and education from 1979-80 to 2012-13, both nationally and by state.

Comparability of State and Local Expenditures Among Schools Within Districts: A Report From the Study of School-Level Expenditures (2011). This report presents findings from the first-ever national data collection on school-level expenditures, collected in response to a requirement in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The report examines the distribution of state and local education expenditures at the school level, including comparisons between Title I and non-Title I schools and between higher-poverty and lower-poverty schools.

The Potential Impact of Revising the Title I Comparability Requirement to Focus on School-Level Expenditures (2011). This policy brief uses the school-level expenditure data from the Study of School-Level Expenditures to examine the potential impact of revising the Title I comparability requirement to focus on school-level expenditures. The federal Title I program requires that school districts provide services in higher-poverty, Title I schools from state and local funds that are at least comparable to those in lower-poverty, non-Title I schools. The current Title I comparability requirement allows school districts to demonstrate compliance in various ways and does not require comparability of actual school-level expenditures.

State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, Volume VI—Targeting and Uses of Federal Education Funds (2009) examines how well federal funds are targeted to districts and schools serving economically disadvantaged students, how Title I targeting has changed over the past seven years, how districts have spent federal funds, and the base of state and local resources to which federal funds are added. The report covers six federal programs: Title I, Part A; Reading First; Comprehensive School Reform (CSR); Title II, Part A; Title III, Part A; and Perkins Vocational Education State Grants. The report uses data on federal program allocations from all states, as well as data from a nationally representative sample of 300 school districts on federal program allocations and expenditure data for the 2004-05 school year.

Evaluation of Flexibility Under No Child Left Behind (2007) examines the Transferability, REAP-Flex, and Local-Flex provisions of No Child Left Behind. Volume I is an executive summary of findings about all three types of flexibility examined in this study. Volumes II and III present more detailed findings on Transferability and REAP-Flex provisions, based on surveys of nationally representative samples of eligible districts. Volume IV is a case study of the single district that is implementing Local-Flex (Seattle). These reports examine the extent to which districts choose to utilize these flexibility provisions, why districts choose to participate, what barriers prevent districts from participating, and potential strategies for increasing participation.


Student Populations

English Learners

Educational Experiences of English Learners: Analyses of Extant Data (2016). Three briefs describe the educational experiences and performance of English learner (EL) students based on data from the 2011-12 Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) and other data from EDFacts. The instructional staff brief explores ELs' exposure to novice, uncertified, or frequently absent teachers. The college preparatory courses and programs brief explores the extent to which ELs have access to and participate in advanced coursework and other college preparatory activities. The grade retention, high school graduation, and GED attainment brief explores the educational success of ELs with respect to grade retention, high school graduation, and GED preparation program participation and credential attainment.

Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): A Review of the Foundational Literature (2012) describes characteristics that may influence the quality of LIEP programs for English learners in grades K through 12. The research reviewed for this study suggests that ELs who receive some kind of language support or specialized instruction show better outcomes on various academic measures than those who receive no special support. While multiple meta-analyses and large-scale research studies have found that models following the bilingual approach can produce better outcomes than ESL models, as measured by general academic content assessments or measures of reading comprehension or skills, other studies indicate that the quality of instructional practices matter as well as the language of instruction. Researchers also found examples of high-quality programs that come from both bilingual and ESL approaches which suggests that no single approach (e.g., ESL or bilingual) is effective at all times and under all circumstances.

National Evaluation of Title III Implementation: A Survey of States' English Language Proficiency Standards (2012). This report summarizes findings from a survey of the English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards used by states during the 2008-09 school year. The survey examined the basic structure of the standards, as well as basic content features such as references to, and support for, the acquisition of academic English and knowledge in the content areas.

National Evaluation of Title III Implementation: Report on State and Local Implementation (2012). This report answers a range of questions about the implementation of the Title III program. It draws on data collected during the 2009-10 school year through telephone interviews with all state Title III directors, a survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,528 Title III subgrantees, and case studies of a purposive sample of 12 districts nested within five states. The study also analyzed extant data such as data from the Consolidated State Performance Reports.

National Evaluation of Title III Implementation Supplemental Report: Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency (ELP) Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress (2012). This report offers several empirical methods that state policy-making authorities can use as part of a larger deliberative process for setting English Language Proficiency (ELP) performance standards and operationalizing ELP assessment and accountability criteria. The approaches presented in the report are intended to stimulate discussion and further exploration of additional methods among state data analysts, technical assistance providers, and researchers.

Title III Accountability: Behind the Numbers (2010) summarizes data reported by states in their Consolidated State Performance Reports (CSPRs) for 2004-05 through 2007-08. The CSPRs are annual reports required under ESEA that states use to submit information to the U.S. Department of Education about their activities and outcomes related to specific ESEA programs. The CSPR data reflect states' direct reports as of March 2009 and have not been validated by the U.S. Department of Education or other external parties.

Title III Accountability and District Improvement Efforts: A Closer Look (2010) summarizes findings from interviews with six Title III Directors and nine Title III district-level directors in the spring of 2009. States and districts were selected in order to collect information from some entities with a long history of serving English Learners (ELs) as well as from entities that have experienced a rapid increase in EL enrollments in recent years. Findings from this small sample cannot be generalized to all states or districts.

Title III Policy: State of the States (2010) discusses state implementation of the Title III accountability requirements based on phone interviews with six state Title III Directors in the spring of 2009, interviews with six experts and university-based researchers who work on education for English Learners, and based on earlier data collected in 2004 through 2007 under the Study of State Implementation of Accountability and Teacher Quality under No Child Left Behind and under the National Longitudinal Study of No Child Left Behind.


Children of Migratory Farmworkers

A Snapshot of Title I Schools Serving Migrant Students, 2000-01 (2003) provides information on implementation of the Title I program in schools serving migrant students. It compares Title I schools with migrant students to all Title I schools in the areas of social, demographic, and organizational characteristics and the implementation of Title I provisions between 1998-99 and 2000-01.

The Same High Standards for Migrant Students: Holding Title I Schools Accountable (2003) examines whether and how states and schools include migrant students in standards-based reforms.

  • Executive Summary: PDF (275 KB)| Word (170 KB)
  • Volume I—Title I Schools Serving Migrant Students: Recent Evidence From The National Longitudinal Survey of Schools examines whether and how Title I schools that serve migrant students are implementing the provisions of Title I, and to describe the characteristics of and conditions in schools serving migrant children during the 1998-99 school year.
    PDF (588 KB) | Word (1.71 MB)
  • Volume II—Measurement of Migrant Student Educational Achievement investigates the extent to which migrant students participate in state and local assessment and accountability programs, and the types and quality of academic outcome data on migrant students collected and maintained by state and local educational agencies.
    PDF (577 KB) | Word (1.05 MB)
  • Volume III—Coordinating the Education of Migrant Students: Lessons Learned from the Field examines promising practices in migrant education programs. Four groups of two or three districts that share students who move back and forth between them were chosen for study.
    PDF (499 KB) | Word (506 KB)
  • Evaluation Brief: Schools Identified as in Need of Improvement Under Title I (2002) examines levels of understanding of school improvement status by school principals; technical assistance received by these schools; whether schools have been subjected to corrective actions; schools' progress in meeting adequate yearly progress targets and moving out of school improvement status.
  • Evaluation Brief: Teacher Professional Development in Title I Schools (2002) provides information on professional development in Title I schools in 1998-99 and 1999-2000.
  • Evaluation Brief: Provision of Title I Services (2002) examines the extent to which changes in Title I legislation have helped promote school improvement activities, as well as the provision of instructional services including extended time, use of pullout and in-class instruction, use of teacher aides; and coordination of services for special population students.

Students with Disabilities

State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, Volume V—Implementation of the 1 Percent Rule and 2 Percent Interim Policy Options (2009) presents findings about the implementation of regulations and guidelines issued under the No Child Left Behind Act that provide flexibility for the treatment of certain students with disabilities in state assessment and accountability systems. These findings are from the Study of State Implementation of Accountability and Teacher Quality Under NCLB, based on surveys of state officials in 2004-05 and 2006-07 and analysis of extant data about state implementation of NCLB assessment and accountability requirements.


Homeless Children and Youth

State and District Implementation of the Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program (2015). This report examines how states and districts were implementing the EHCY program during the 2010-11 school year, based on surveys of state EHCY coordinators and district homeless liaisons as well as analysis of extant data. Topics include how states allocate EHCY funds, the roles and responsibilities of the state coordinators and district liaisons, types of services provided, technical assistance, data collected by states and districts, and potential barriers to school success for homeless children and youth.

The Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Learning to Succeed (2002) provides evidence that states and school districts have made significant progress in revising laws, policies, regulations' and practices that have served as barriers to the enrollment, attendance, and school achievement of homeless students.

  • Executive Summary: PDF (280 KB)| Word (137 KB)
  • Volume I:Reducing Barriers for Homeless Children and Youth for Access and Achievement examines state and local efforts to serve the educational needs of homeless children and youth, and to overcome barriers that affect these students' enrollment, attendance, and school success.
    PDF (879 KB) | Word (352 KB)
  • Volume II:Educating Homeless Children and Youth: A Resource Guide to Promising Practices suggests strategies and processes that states, districts, and schools can use to overcome some of the many barriers that keep homeless children and youth from getting the education to which they are entitled. It also presents approaches for helping them to achieve the same high standards expected of all children. The promising practices the guide describes all come from states and districts that have placed a strong emphasis on enrolling homeless children and youth in school and helping them to be successful students.
    PDF (1.24 MB) | Word (501 KB)

Rural Schools

Study of Experiences and Needs of Rural Education Achievement Program Grantees (2016). This report examines state and district practices and perspectives regarding the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) in 2014-15. The data were collected from all 47 states with districts who drew down REAP funds and a nationally representative sample of REAP coordinators in districts that used REAP funds in 2014-15. Data for the report were collected in spring 2015, prior to the passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015. Therefore, the findings and recommendations in this report, as well as descriptions of REAP provisions and practices, are applicable to the program as authorized by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act as amended in 2001; they do not represent implementation under the ESSA.



   
Last Modified: 12/15/2017